Complete Guide to Emotional Support Dogs in 2023

Written by: Jamie
Updated: January 18, 2021

Learn about emotional support dogs in our comprehensive guide. We discuss how they can help, the current laws in the UK, which dogs are best, and how you can find one.

Happy dog with closed eyes in female hands

Emotional support animals, or ESAs, are rapidly gaining in popularity – and dogs are among the most common choices of animal to provide comfort to people with mental health difficulties.

Since emotional support dogs are a relatively new addition to mental health treatment plans, however, there are a lot of misconceptions and misunderstandings surrounding the concept.

Today, we’ll explore the topic of emotional support dogs, explain how they can help and how you can get one, and suggest some popular dog breeds that make excellent ESAs.

What is an emotional support dog?

Most dog owners have, at some point in their lives, experienced a situation when their four-legged friend helped them through a difficult time. Even if you don’t suffer from a diagnosed mental health disorder, you probably know what it’s like to be cheered up by your dog when you’re feeling down or having a bad day.

The purpose behind emotional support animals is to regularly provide this feeling of comfort and companionship to people who need it most. Emotional support dogs help people with mental health problems manage their symptoms by offering emotional comfort.

Woman petting dog wearing coat

For example, a person with PTSD who becomes anxious when alone at night may find that having an emotional support dog by their side makes them feel safer and more comfortable. Similarly, someone suffering from panic attacks may be comforted by the presence of their dog during critical moments, making their symptoms less acute.

Emotional support dogs are live-in pets. They are a type of support animal, although they are not the same as service dogs or therapy dogs.

The three types of support animal

Service dogs are specially trained to provide practical help and physical support to disabled people and those affected by certain conditions. For instance, they serve as seeing-eye dogs for the blind, alert deaf people when necessary, or are there to turn over someone who is having a seizure to ensure physical safety.

Emotional support dogs, meanwhile, don’t require any official training and don’t have specific tasks to fulfill. As Dr Ellen Hendriksen, clinical psychologist at Boston University’s Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders puts it, “Service animals do, while emotional support animals are.”

Dr. Hendriksen adds, “Emotional support animals help simply by being there. They don’t undergo any specific training because their presence, in and of itself, is comforting to someone suffering from anxiety, depression, or another mental or physical illness.”

Woman pets dog in the nature at sunset

Although this article focuses on dogs, any pet could technically be an emotional support animal – commonly including cats, birds, and hedgehogs, among others. Meanwhile, service animals are almost always dogs or, more recently, miniature horses.

Lastly, therapy dogs are trained to provide comfort and affection in hospitals, hospices, nursing homes, and other such settings. They are brought into a facility by a handler and taken away at the end of a session – unlike emotional support dogs, which are live-in pets helping one person.

Emotional support dog vs psychiatric assistance dog – what’s the difference?

It’s important to note that there is a special type of service dog for people with serious psychiatric issues.

Psychiatric assistance dogs are individually trained to assist their handlers in practical ways. For instance, they can remind the person to take medication, act as physical support if the handler becomes dizzy, or interrupt problematic behaviours (such as repetition in the case of people affected by OCD).

Although they are becoming increasingly more common in the U.S., psychiatric assistance dogs are not easily obtained in the UK. Currently, the only way to get one is by training one yourself with the help of an appropriate charity, or by securing the help of a non-profit organisation – such as Service Dogs UK, which trains assistance dogs for veterans suffering from PTSD.

Emotional support dogs don’t have any such training, since their purpose isn’t to actively assist the person in everyday activities or to react to specific behaviours.

However, this is not to say that they are ‘not as good’ as psychiatric assistance dogs: for some people, it’s enough that the dog is just there for them. Despite not having training, many dogs can intuitively find ways to make us feel better.

In what ways can an emotional support dog help?

Scientific research into the measurable benefits of living with an emotional support dog is still in its early stages. However, reviews of existing research show that there is a good amount of anecdotal, qualitative evidence that ESAs can be highly effective in managing mental health problems.

Examples of ways in which an emotional support dog can be helpful include:

  • Managing stress and alleviating worry
  • Reducing feelings of loneliness and isolation
  • Providing a positive distraction from negative thoughts and anxiety
  • Giving a person a sense of purpose
  • Providing physical contact and companionship
  • Increasing self-esteem and offering a feeling of belonging

In addition to direct emotional support, having a dog can also promote physical health and the formation of positive habits. The responsibilities that come with looking after a dog result in:

  • Providing a daily schedule and structure, which is important in managing mental health disorders (particularly depression)
  • Enabling exercise during walking and playing with the dog, improving overall physical health

Alongside anxiety, depression, and PTSD, emotional support animals can also be helpful for:

  • People on the autism spectrum – a dog can provide a simple, reliable relationship with straightforward communication and become a soothing influence
  • Those suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other ongoing mental health conditions
  • People who don’t have a diagnosed mental disorder, but are going through a period of extreme stress or lowered mood – such as those suffering from physical conditions or recovering from injuries/surgery

As we’ve already seen, emotional support dogs don’t require any kind of training. However, certain personality traits are more desirable than others.

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Emotional support animal certification in the UK

Sadly, unlike in the USA, the UK government doesn’t currently recognise emotional support animals with any type of certification or accreditation.

This poses all sorts of problems as legally an emotional support dog is treated the same as any other dog. This means there are no special allowances made when it comes to travel and animal-friendly housing, like with legally recognised assistance dogs.

In the case of air travel, access depends on individual airlines – some are more accommodating than others. Currently, Virgin Airlines, EasyJet, and Ryanair allow emotional support dogs (but not other emotional support animals, such as cats or hedgehogs) on board, while British Airways does not.

It should be noted that there appear to be a lot of websites out there that position themselves as authorities that certify emotional support animals for a fee. This might be possible in the US but it is definitely NOT currently possible to do this in the UK. These websites are acting fraudulently and have no authority.

Emotional support dog – UK law

Unfortunately, emotional support dogs are not considered service animals in the UK, and therefore you don’t have the same rights as with other assistance dogs like guide dogs for example.

This means you need to obtain permission from shop owners, restaurant staff, landlords, airlines, and so on.

Because UK law doesn’t oblige businesses to treat ESAs as anything other than pets, it’s up to the business itself to decide whether it will make allowances for you and your dog

There’s a petition here that has close to 50,000 signatures. Add your name and let the government know that ESA animals are just as important as other assistance animals.

How to get an emotional support dog in the UK

What do you need to do to qualify for an ESA? The matter has been widely discussed in the context of the U.S., where emotional support animals are considerably more common – but what about the UK?

At this moment in time, emotional support dogs are not officially recognised in the UK. However, dogs don’t need to receive any special training to be of emotional help to someone. Any dog with the right personality can help emotionally. Legal rights when it comes to access to certain places, housing, and travel are all potential problems that might arise in the future though. is a recognised charity that provides support dogs for children with autism but not adults.

Man hugs his dog in sunset by the lake.

In the USA the process is the following:

Visit a licensed mental health professional (clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, therapist, or counsellor) for an evaluation of your needs. Typically, ESAs are considered appropriate only for people whose daily life and activities are significantly impacted by the mental health condition.

The mental health professional will determine whether an ESA could genuinely benefit you, as well as evaluating the suitability of a specific pet to become your official ESA.

Researchers and lawmakers are still in the process of refining a standard assessment procedure that would ensure efficient and effective registration of ESAs, and minimise the risk of abuse. Currently, it’s up to the judgement and expertise of the mental health professional to decide whether an ESA is right for you.

If the mental health professional decides you need an ESA, the animal will be ‘prescribed’ as part of your treatment plan and you’ll be issued with an ESA Letter of support.

The ESA Letter is an official document that proves that your dog is an emotional support animal, needed by your side for medical reasons. You’ll need to show a valid ESA Letter every time you attempt to take your dog somewhere animals are not typically welcome, such a restaurant or a flight.

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Online registration of ESA in the UK

You may come across websites offering UK emotional support animal registration for a fee. These websites have no authority and are positioning themselves as official services when in fact they are not.

Emotional support animals are not officially recognised by the UK government at this time.

The best emotional support dog breeds

Any dog can make a great emotional support animal – after all, it’s all down to your relationship with the pooch and how their presence makes you feel.

If you don’t already have a dog and are considering getting one as part of your mental health treatment, we can suggest a few dog breeds best-suited to act as assistance dogs for anxiety and other mental health conditions.

Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

Calm, gentle, and cuddly, dogs of this breed have a strong reputation for being affectionate. They’re quite small (weighing 6 to 8 kg) and don’t require much exercise, which makes them a good breed for first-time dog owners.

A Cavalier King Charles Spaniel is a great choice for those looking for a laid-back dog that’s happy to spend all day cuddled up at home.

Golden Retriever

Popular service dogs and therapy dogs, Golden Retrievers are typically highly trainable, gentle, patient dogs. They tend to be predictable and even-tempered – they also have a playful side and enjoy physical exercise.

As such, Golden Retrievers offer a great mix of providing a lot of emotional support and requiring a moderate level of maintenance. They’ll follow you around all day and cuddle up to you, but they’ll also need you to take them outside for some exercise, for at least an hour a day.


Pomeranians are ‘toy dogs’ – small enough to carry with you in a bag and weighing only around 2.5 kg. In addition to the fact that they tend to enjoy being close to you all day long, they make for highly affectionate, playful companions.

Pomeranians are a good option if you want to take your dog with you everywhere you go – their small size makes them ideal for transportation.

Border Collie

Allegedly the most intelligent breed, Border Collies are highly energetic and extremely loyal. Dogs of this breed rarely show aggression and tend to be predictable, playful, and very easy to train.

However, they do require a large amount of exercise and mental stimulation. Ideally, they should get around two hours of off-leash exercise every day. For stimulating their minds, you can teach them tricks or play around with scent work.

Border Collies are a great choice of assistant dogs for depression, for people who find they need the motivation to go outside. They can keep you busy all day long and motivate you to exercise and to organise your time.

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How to choose an ESA dog breed for you

The choice will be down to your personal preference, needs, and environment. Small dogs are easier to take with you wherever you go, while large breeds can make you feel safer and protected if you get anxious while outside your house.

The costs and effort required are also worth considering. The upkeep for large dogs costs more, and some breeds may require a lot more exercise – but the latter could be a good thing if you’re looking to get out more.

At the end of the day, though, what matters most is your personal connection with the dog. Whether you choose a specific breed or fall in love with a particular pooch without planning to, your dog is sure to provide you with lots of love, affection, and positive emotions.

About the Author

Hi, I'm Jamie! I've always been around dogs and now writing about them is an absolute joy.
Read more about my story here.
Reach me at or connect with me on LinkedIn below.

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  1. I found this information interesting ..i have C.P.T.S.D and adjustment disorder..ive had dogs in the past but i have been really considering the benifits of an assistant dog..unfortunatly ive never been in the armed forces and being on benifits unable to pay vast sums of money…so unless i get financual help..its just a dream of mine which makes me sad as thwre are so many rescue dogs needing good homes

  2. I suffer with anxiety depression bourderline personality disorder, I get extremely distressed and emotional and have often felt suicidal, I am considering an asd and was wo derongnif you can give me more Info and how much they are?

    1. Hi Marianne,

      Currently in the UK emotional support animals are not officially registered. Therefore any dog that helps you feel better can be one.

  3. Hi

    I’ve looked at a few sites including yours and cannot find where I can register an esa animal via the official route. I am autistic and have a letter from my health professional. If you could be specific in your explanation that would be very helpful.

    Many thanks

    1. Hi Paul,

      There’s currently no recognised official accreditation of emotional support animals in the UK. It’s something that will hopefully change soon.

      Be wary of official looking scam websites that tell you otherwise!

  4. I need help and support and I have found the only way I feel some kind of normality in everyday life is having a dog around, especially to focus my mind and rest my anxiety and by letting my brain breathe. I stay focused and happy when there is a four-legged friend around, I borrow friends dogs but it is not the same as having my owned this,please help me
    My depression and anxiety does become bearable and I can focus and have the reason to get up in the morning,to get out into the fresh air. A reason to be alive, a reason not to swerve into the fast lane and finally meet my maker.

    1. Hi Emily,

      That’s great that dogs have such a positive effect! They have an amazing natural ability to put smiles on peoples faces 🙂

      If you’re thinking of getting your own dog then adopting from a shelter is a great way to help out a dog in need. You can search for dogs that need homes in your area here:

      Please let us know if there’s anything else we can do to help

  5. I suffer depression and anxiety for many years, I did have a dog some years back, and she passed 5yrs ago. I now have another dog and again I feel so much better mentally. I think emotional support dogs are very important to such as myself. They give you comfort when out and about. They should be treated the same as other service dogs.

  6. Useful article.
    I recently filled in a Personal Indepence Payment (PIP) form as I am on the autistic spectrum and have anxiety issues and severe depression. As I filled it in, I noticed how much I rely on my dog, a 13 year old Jack Russell, not only for companionship and general emotional support but for everyday activities. In a period of wellness, I trained him to respond to alarms on my watch and mobile by whining, jumping on me and finally barking until I responded by going to the kitchen. He prompts me all through the day but because he is self-trained and because only service dogs for the blind and deaf are recognized in the UK, he is not permitted to help me to his full potential out and about.

  7. Hi all. Just lost my mum, who
    I was a full time Carer for, recently separated from husband . On benefits, no friends or family to speak of. Unable to use publi. Transport due to Autism, completely isolated abs alone. Huge animal lover, feel if I had a support dog, it would help me to get out of these four walls I am licked in

    Any advice please

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